obspy.io.sac.sactrace

Python interface to the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) file format.

copyright:The Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Yannik Behr, C. J. Ammon, C. Satriano, L. Krischer, and J. MacCarthy
license:GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 3 (https://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html)

The SACTrace object maintains consistency between SAC headers and manages header values in a user-friendly way. This includes some value-checking, native Python logicals (True, False) and nulls (None) instead of SAC’s 0, 1, or -12345...

SAC headers are implemented as properties, with appropriate getters and setters.

Features

  1. Read and write SAC binary or ASCII
    • autodetect or specify expected byteorder
    • optional file size checking and/or header consistency checks
    • header-only reading and writing
    • “overwrite OK” checking (‘lovrok’ header)
  2. Convenient access and manipulation of relative and absolute time headers
  3. User-friendly header printing/viewing
  4. Fast access to header values from attributes
    • With type checking, null handling, and enumerated value checking
  5. Convert to/from ObsPy Traces
    • Conversion from ObsPy Trace to SAC trace retains detected previous SAC header values.
    • Conversion to ObsPy Trace retains the complete SAC header.

Usage examples

Read/write SAC files

# read from a binary file
sac = SACTrace.read(filename)

# read header only
sac = SACTrace.read(filename, headonly=True)

# write header-only, file must exist
sac.write(filename, headonly=True)

# read from an ASCII file
sac = SACTrace.read(filename, ascii=True)

# write a binary SAC file for a Sun machine
sac.write(filename, byteorder='big')

Build a SACTrace from a header dictionary and data array

Example

>>> header = {'kstnm': 'ANMO', 'kcmpnm': 'BHZ', 'stla': 40.5, 'stlo': -108.23,
...           'evla': -15.123, 'evlo': 123, 'evdp': 50, 'nzyear': 2012,
...           'nzjday': 123, 'nzhour': 13, 'nzmin': 43, 'nzsec': 17,
...           'nzmsec': 100, 'delta': 1.0/40}
>>> sac = SACTrace(data=np.random.random(100), **header)
>>> print(sac)  
Reference Time = 05/02/2012 (123) 13:43:17.100000
   iztype IB: begin time
b          = 0.0
delta      = 0.0250000...
e          = 2.4750000...
evdp       = 50.0
evla       = -15.123000...
evlo       = 123.0
iftype     = itime
internal0  = 2.0
iztype     = ib
kcmpnm     = BHZ
kstnm      = ANMO
lcalda     = False
leven      = True
lovrok     = True
lpspol     = True
npts       = 100
nvhdr      = 6
nzhour     = 13
nzjday     = 123
nzmin      = 43
nzmsec     = 100
nzsec      = 17
nzyear     = 2012
stla       = 40.5
stlo       = -108.23000...

Reference-time and relative time headers

Example

>>> sac = SACTrace(nzyear=2000, nzjday=1, nzhour=0, nzmin=0, nzsec=0,
...                nzmsec=0, t1=23.5, data=np.arange(100))
>>> print(sac.reftime)
2000-01-01T00:00:00.000000Z
>>> sac.b, sac.e, sac.t1
(0.0, 99.0, 23.5)

Move reference time by relative seconds, relative time headers are preserved.

Example

>>> sac = SACTrace(nzyear=2000, nzjday=1, nzhour=0, nzmin=0, nzsec=0,
...                nzmsec=0, t1=23.5, data=np.arange(100))
>>> sac.reftime -= 2.5
>>> sac.b, sac.e, sac.t1
(2.5, 101.5, 26.0)

Set reference time to new absolute time, relative time headers are preserved.

Example

>>> sac = SACTrace(nzyear=2000, nzjday=1, nzhour=0, nzmin=0, nzsec=0,
...                nzmsec=0, t1=23.5, data=np.arange(100))
>>> # set the reftime two minutes later
>>> sac.reftime = UTCDateTime(2000, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 0)
>>> sac.b, sac.e, sac.t1
(-120.0, -21.0, -96.5)

Quick header viewing

Print non-null header values.

Example

>>> sac = SACTrace()
>>> print(sac)  
Reference Time = 01/01/1970 (001) 00:00:00.000000
   iztype IB: begin time
b          = 0.0
delta      = 1.0
e          = 0.0
iftype     = itime
internal0  = 2.0
iztype     = ib
lcalda     = False
leven      = True
lovrok     = True
lpspol     = True
npts       = 0
nvhdr      = 6
nzhour     = 0
nzjday     = 1
nzmin      = 0
nzmsec     = 0
nzsec      = 0
nzyear     = 1970

Print relative time header values.

Example

>>> sac = SACTrace()
>>> sac.lh('picks')  
Reference Time = 01/01/1970 (001) 00:00:00.000000
   iztype IB: begin time
a          = None
b          = 0.0
e          = 0.0
f          = None
o          = None
t0         = None
t1         = None
t2         = None
t3         = None
t4         = None
t5         = None
t6         = None
t7         = None
t8         = None
t9         = None

Header values as attributes

Great for interactive use, with (ipython) tab-completion...

sac.<tab>
sac.a                 sac.kevnm             sac.nzsec
sac.az                sac.kf                sac.nzyear
sac.b                 sac.khole             sac.o
sac.baz               sac.kinst             sac.odelta
sac.byteorder         sac.knetwk            sac.read
sac.cmpaz             sac.ko                sac.reftime
sac.cmpinc            sac.kstnm             sac.scale
sac.copy              sac.kt0               sac.stdp
sac.data              sac.kt1               sac.stel
sac.delta             sac.kt2               sac.stla
sac.depmax            sac.kt3               sac.stlo
sac.depmen            sac.kt4               sac.t0
sac.depmin            sac.kt5               sac.t1
sac.dist              sac.kt6               sac.t2
sac.e                 sac.kt7               sac.t3
sac.evdp              sac.kt8               sac.t4
sac.evla              sac.kt9               sac.t5
sac.evlo              sac.kuser0            sac.t6
sac.f                 sac.kuser1            sac.t7
sac.from_obspy_trace  sac.kuser2            sac.t8
sac.gcarc             sac.lcalda            sac.t9
sac.idep              sac.leven             sac.to_obspy_trace
sac.ievreg            sac.lh                sac.unused23
sac.ievtyp            sac.listhdr           sac.user0
sac.iftype            sac.lovrok            sac.user1
sac.iinst             sac.lpspol            sac.user2
sac.imagsrc           sac.mag               sac.user3
sac.imagtyp           sac.nevid             sac.user4
sac.internal0         sac.norid             sac.user5
sac.iqual             sac.npts              sac.user6
sac.istreg            sac.nvhdr             sac.user7
sac.isynth            sac.nwfid             sac.user8
sac.iztype            sac.nzhour            sac.user9
sac.ka                sac.nzjday            sac.validate
sac.kcmpnm            sac.nzmin             sac.write
sac.kdatrd            sac.nzmsec

...and documentation (in IPython)!

sac.iztype?
Type:        property
String form: <property object at 0x106404940>
Docstring:
I    Reference time equivalence:

* IUNKN (5): Unknown
* IB (9): Begin time
* IDAY (10): Midnight of reference GMT day
* IO (11): Event origin time
* IA (12): First arrival time
* ITn (13-22): User defined time pick n, n=0,9

Convert to/from ObsPy Traces

Example

>>> from obspy import read
>>> tr = read()[0]
>>> print(tr.stats)  
         network: BW
         station: RJOB
        location:
         channel: EHZ
       starttime: 2009-08-24T00:20:03.000000Z
         endtime: 2009-08-24T00:20:32.990000Z
   sampling_rate: 100.0
           delta: 0.01
            npts: 3000
           calib: 1.0
    back_azimuth: 100.0
     inclination: 30.0
        response: Channel Response
            ...
>>> sac = SACTrace.from_obspy_trace(tr)
>>> print(sac)  
Reference Time = 08/24/2009 (236) 00:20:03.000000
   iztype IB: begin time
b          = 0.0
delta      = 0.009999999...
e          = 29.989999...
iftype     = itime
iztype     = ib
kcmpnm     = EHZ
knetwk     = BW
kstnm      = RJOB
lcalda     = True
leven      = True
lovrok     = True
lpspol     = False
npts       = 3000
nvhdr      = 6
nzhour     = 0
nzjday     = 236
nzmin      = 20
nzmsec     = 0
nzsec      = 3
nzyear     = 2009
scale      = 1.0
>>> tr2 = sac.to_obspy_trace()
>>> print(tr2.stats)  
         network: BW
         station: RJOB
        location:
         channel: EHZ
       starttime: 2009-08-24T00:20:03.000000Z
         endtime: 2009-08-24T00:20:32.990000Z
   sampling_rate: 100.0
           delta: 0.01
            npts: 3000
           calib: 1.0
             sac: AttribDict(...)

Private Functions

Warning

Private functions are mainly for internal/developer use and their API might change without notice.

_boolgetter
_boolsetter
_enumgetter
_enumsetter
_floatgetter
_floatsetter
_geosetter
_get_e
_get_kevnm
_intgetter
_intsetter
_make_data_func
_reltime_setter
_set_iztype Set the iztype, which describes what the reftime is.
_set_kevnm
_set_lcalda
_strgetter
_strsetter

Classes

SACTrace Convenient and consistent in-memory representation of Seismic Analysis Code